Monday, December 30, 2019
Biography of Simon Bolivar, Liberator of South America
Simon Bolivar (July 24, 1783Ã¢â¬âDecember 17, 1830) was the greatest leader of Latin Americas independence movement from Spain. A superb general and a charismatic politician, he not only drove the Spanish from northern South America but also was instrumental in the early formative years of the republics that sprang up once the Spanish had gone. His later years are marked by the collapse of his grand dream of a united South America. He is remembered as The Liberator, the man who liberated his home from Spanish rule. Fast Facts: Simon Bolivar Known For: Liberating South America from Spanish rule during the Independence movementAlso Known As: SimÃ ³n JosÃ © Antonio de la SantÃ sima Trinidad BolÃ var y Palacios, The LiberatorBorn: July 24, 1783 in Caracas, VenezuelaParents: MarÃ a de la ConcepciÃ ³n Palacios y Blanco, ColonelÃ Don Juan Vicente BolÃ var y PonteDied: December 17, 1830 in Santa Marta,Ã Gran ColombiaÃ Education: Private tutoring; the military academy of the Milicias de Aragua in Venezuela; military academy in MadridAwards and Honors:Ã The nation of Bolivia is named for Bolivar, as are numerous cities, streets, and buildings. His birthday is aÃ public holiday in VenezuelaÃ and Bolivia.Spouse:Ã MarÃ a Teresa RodrÃ guez del Toro y AlaizaNotable Quote:Ã Fellow citizens! I blush to say this: Independence is the only benefit we have acquired, to the detriment of all the rest. Early Life Bolivar was born in Caracas (present-day Venezuela) in 1783 to an extremely wealthy creole family (Latin Americans descended almost entirely from European Spaniards). At that time, a handful of families owned most of the land in Venezuela, and the Bolivar family was among the wealthiest in the colony. Both of his parents died while Simon was still young: he had no memory of his father, Juan Vicente, and his mother Concepcion Palacios died when he was 9 years old. Orphaned, Simon went to live with his grandfather and was raised by his uncles and his nurse HipÃ ³lita, for whom he had great affection. Young Simon was an arrogant, hyperactive lad who often had disagreements with his tutors. He was schooled at the finest schools that Caracas had to offer. From 1804 to 1807 he went to Europe, where he toured around in the manner of a wealthy New World Creole. Personal Life BolÃ var was a natural leader and a man of great energy. He was very competitive, often challenging his officers to contests of swimming or horsemanship (and usually winning). He could stay up all night playing cards or drinking andÃ singingÃ with his men, who were fanatically loyal to him. Bolivar married once early in life, but his wife died shortly thereafter. From that point forward, he was a notorious womanizer who had dozens, if not hundreds, of lovers over the years. He cared greatly for appearances and loved nothing more than making grand entrances into cities he had liberated and could spend hours grooming himself; in fact, some claim he could use a whole bottle of cologne in one day. Venezuela: Ripe for Independence When BolÃ var returned to Venezuela in 1807, he found a population divided between loyalty to Spain and a desire for independence. Venezuelan general Francisco de Miranda had attempted to kick-start independence in 1806 with an aborted invasion of Venezuelas northern coast. When Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808 and imprisoned King Ferdinand VII, many Venezuelans felt that they no longer owed allegiance to Spain, giving the independence movementÃ undeniable momentum. The First Venezuelan Republic On April 19, 1810, the people of Caracas declared provisional independence from Spain: they were still nominally loyal to King Ferdinand, but would rule Venezuela by themselves until such a time as Spain was back on its feet and Ferdinand restored. Young SimÃ ³n BolÃ var was an important voice during this time, advocating for full independence. Along with a small delegation, BolÃ var was dispatched to England to seek the support of the British government. There he met Miranda and invited him back to Venezuela to participate in the government of the young republic. When Bolivar returned, he found civil strife between patriots and royalists. On July 5, 1811, the First Venezuelan Republic voted for full independence, dropping the farce that they were still loyal to Ferdinand VII. On March 26, 1812, a tremendous earthquake rocked Venezuela. It hit mostly rebellious cities, and Spanish priests were able to convince a superstitious population that the earthquake was divine retribution. Royalist Captain Domingo Monteverde rallied the Spanish and royalist forces and captured important ports and the city of Valencia. Miranda sued for peace. Disgusted, BolÃ var arrested Miranda and turned him over to the Spanish, but the First Republic had fallen and the Spanish regained control of Venezuela. The Admirable Campaign Bolivar was defeated and went into exile. In late 1812, he went to New Granada (now Colombia) to look for a commission as an officer in the growing Independence movement there. He was given 200 men and control of a remote outpost. He aggressively attacked all Spanish forces in the area, and his prestige and army grew. By the beginning of 1813, he was ready to lead a sizeable army into Venezuela. The royalists in Venezuela could not beat him head-on but rather tried to surround him with a number of smaller armies. BolÃ var did what everyone least expected and made a mad dash for Caracas. The gamble paid off, and on August 7, 1813, Bolivar rode victoriously into Caracas at the head of his army. This dazzling march became known as the Admirable Campaign. The Second Venezuelan Republic BolÃ var quickly established the Second Venezuelan Republic. The grateful people named him Liberator and made him dictator of the new nation.Ã Although BolivarÃ had outfoxed the Spanish, he had not beaten their armies. He did not have time to govern, as he was constantly battling royalist forces. At the beginning of 1814, the infernal Legion, an army of savage Plainsmen led by a cruel but charismatic Spaniard named Tomas Boves, began assaulting the young republic. Defeated by Boves at the second Battle of La Puerta in June of 1814, BolÃ var was forced to abandon first Valencia and then Caracas, thus ending the Second Republic. BolÃ var went into exile once again. 1814 to 1819 The years of 1814 to 1819 were tough ones for BolÃ var and South America. In 1815, he penned his famous Letter from Jamaica, which outlined the struggles of Independence to date. Widely disseminated, the letter reinforced his position as the most important leader of the Independence movement. When he returned to the mainland, he found Venezuela in the grip of chaos. Pro-independence leaders and royalist forces fought up and down the land, devastating the countryside. This period was marked by much strife among the different generals fighting for independence. It wasnt until Bolivar made an example of GeneralÃ Manuel PiarÃ by executing him in October of 1817 that he was able to bring other Patriot warlords such as Santiago MariÃ ±o and JosÃ © Antonio PÃ ¡ez into line. 1819: Bolivar Crosses the Andes In early 1819, Venezuela was devastated, its cities in ruins, as royalists and patriots fought vicious battles wherever they met. BolÃ var found himself pinned against the Andes in western Venezuela. He then realized that he was less than 300 miles away from the Viceregal capital of Bogota, which was practically undefended. If he could capture it, he could destroy the Spanish base of power in northern South America. The only problem: between him and Bogota were not only flooded plains, fetid swamps and raging rivers but the mighty, snow-capped peaks of the Andes Mountains. In May of 1819, he began the crossing with some 2,400 men. TheyÃ crossed the AndesÃ at the frigid PÃ ¡ramo de Pisba pass and on July 6, 1819, they finally reached the New Granadan village of Socha. His army was in tatters: some estimate that 2,000 may have perished en route. The Battle of Boyaca Despite his losses, in the summer of 1819 Bolivar had his army where he needed it. He also had the element of surprise. His enemies assumed he would never be so insane as to cross the Andes where he did. He quickly recruited new soldiers from a population eager for liberty and set out for Bogota. There was only one army between him and his objective, and on August 7, 1819, Bolivar surprised Spanish General JosÃ © MarÃ a BarreiroÃ on the banks of the Boyaca River. The battle was a triumph for Bolivar, shocking in its results: BolÃ var lost 13 killed and some 50 were wounded, whereas 200 royalists were killed and some 1,600 were captured. On August 10, Bolivar marched into Bogota unopposed. Mopping up in Venezuela and New Granada With the defeat of Barreiros army, BolÃ var held New Granada. With captured funds and weapons and recruits flocking to his banner, it was only a matter of time before the remaining Spanish forces in New Granada and Venezuela were run down and defeated. On June 24, 1821, BolÃ var crushed the last major royalist force in Venezuela at the decisive Battle of Carabobo. BolÃ var brashly declared the birth of a New Republic: Gran Colombia, which would include the lands of Venezuela, NewÃ Granada,Ã and Ecuador. He was named president andÃ Francisco de Paula SantanderÃ was named vice president. Northern South America was liberated, so Bolivar turned his gaze to the south. The Liberation of Ecuador BolÃ var was bogged down by political duties, so he sent an army south under the command of his best general, Antonio JosÃ © de Sucre. Sucres army moved into present-day Ecuador, liberating towns and cities as it went. On May 24, 1822, Sucre squared off against the largest royalist force in Ecuador. They fought on the muddy slopes of Pichincha Volcano, within sight of Quito.Ã The Battle of PichinchaÃ was a great victory for Sucre and the Patriots, who forever drove the Spanish from Ecuador. The Liberation of Peru and the Creation of Bolivia BolÃ var left Santander in charge of Gran Colombia and headed south to meet up with Sucre. On July 26-27, Bolivar met withÃ JosÃ © de San MartÃ n, liberator of Argentina, in Guayaquil. It was decided there that BolÃ var would lead the charge into Peru, the last royalist stronghold on the continent. On August 6, 1824, Bolivar and Sucre defeated the Spanish atÃ the Battle of Junin. On December 9, Sucre dealt the royalists another harsh blow at the Battle of Ayacucho, basically destroying the last royalist army in Peru. The next year, also on August 6, the Congress of Upper Peru created the nation of Bolivia, naming it after Bolivar and confirming him as president. BolÃ var had driven the Spanish out of northern and western South America and now ruled over the present-day nations of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama. It was his dream to unite them all, creating one unified nation. It was not to be. Dissolution of Gran Colombia Santander had angered Bolivar by refusing to send troops and supplies during the liberation of Ecuador and Peru, and Bolivar dismissed him when he returned to Gran Colombia. By then, however, the republic was beginning to fall apart. Regional leaders had been consolidating their power in Bolivars absence. In Venezuela, JosÃ © Antonio PÃ ¡ez, a hero of Independence, constantly threatened secession. In Colombia, Santander still had his followers who felt that he was the best man to lead the nation. In Ecuador, Juan JosÃ © Flores was trying to pry the nation away from Gran Colombia. BolÃ var was forced to seize power and accept dictatorship to control the unwieldy republic. The nations were divided among his supporters and his detractors: in the streets, people burned him in effigy as a tyrant. A civil war was a constant threat. His enemies tried to assassinate him on September 25, 1828, and nearly managed to do so: only the intervention of his lover,Ã Manuela Saenz, saved him. Death of Simon Bolivar As the Republic of Gran Colombia fell around him, his health deteriorated as his tuberculosis worsened. In April of 1830, BolÃ var was disillusioned, ill, and bitter, and he resigned the presidency and set off to go into exile in Europe. Even as he left, his successors fought over the pieces of his empire and his allies fought to get him reinstated. As he and his entourage slowly made their way to the coast, he still dreamed of unifying South America into one great nation. It was not to be: he finally succumbed to tuberculosis on December 17, 1830. The Legacy of Simon Bolivar It is impossible to overstate BolÃ vars importance in northern and western South America. Although the eventual independence of Spains New World colonies was inevitable, it took a man with BolÃ vars skills to make it happen. BolÃ var was probably the best general South America has ever produced, as well as the most influential politician. The combination of these skills on one man is extraordinary, and BolÃ var is rightly considered by many as the most important figure in Latin American history. His name made the famous 1978 list of the 100 most famous people in history, compiled by Michael H. Hart. Other names on the list include Jesus Christ, Confucius, andÃ Alexander the Great. Some nations had their own liberators, such as Bernardo OHiggins in Chile orÃ Miguel HidalgoÃ in Mexico. These men may be little known outside of the nations they helped free, but SimÃ ³n BolÃ var is known all over Latin America with the sort of reverence that citizens of the United States associated withÃ George Washington. If anything, BolÃ vars status now is greater than ever. His dreams and words have proved prescient time and again. He knew that the future of Latin America lay in freedom and he knew how to attain it. He predicted that if Gran Colombia fell apart and that if smaller, weaker republics were allowed to form from the ashes of the Spanish colonial system, the region would always be at an international disadvantage. This has certainly proven to be the case, and many a Latin American over the years has wondered how things would be different today if BolÃ var had managed to unite all of northern and western South America into one large, powerful nation instead of the bickering republics that we have now. BolÃ var still serves as a source of inspiration for many. Former Venezuelan dictatorÃ Hugo ChavezÃ initiated what he called a Bolivarian Revolution in his country in 1999, comparing himself to the legendary general as he tried to veer Venezuela into socialism. Countless books and movies have been made about him: one outstanding example is Gabriel GarcÃ a Marquezs The General in His Labyrinth, which chronicles BolÃ vars final journey. Sources Harvey, Robert.Ã Liberators: Latin Americas Struggle for IndependenceÃ Woodstock: The Overlook Press, 2000.Lynch, John.Ã The Spanish American Revolutions 1808-1826Ã New York: W. W. Norton Company, 1986.Lynch, John.Ã Simon Bolivar: A Life. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006.Scheina, Robert L.Ã Latin Americas Wars, Volume 1: The Age of the Caudillo 1791-1899Ã Washington, D.C.: Brasseys Inc., 2003.